Genus epithet ‘Bidens’ (BY-dens) means ‘twice’ (bi) and ‘toothed’ (dens), a reference to the two bristles on the tip of the achene-seed (1) of some members of this genus. Species epithet ‘pilosa’ means ‘hairy’, describing the velvety foliage.
- achene – a small, dry one-seeded fruit that does not open to release the seed.
Synonyms: Bidens abadiae DC; Bidens abadiae var. Sherff pilosoides ; Bidens arenaria Gand.; Bidens gully ME Jones; Bidens bimucronatus Turcz.; Bidens californica DC.; Bidens caracasana DC.; Bidens hirsute Nutt.; Bidens hispida Kunth; Bidens leucantha var. pilosa (L.) Griseb.; Bidens monophyllus Urb.; Bidens Montaubani Phil.; Bidens odorata Cav.; Bidens odorata var. calcicola (Greenm.) Ballard ex Melchert; Bidens odorata var. calcicola (Greenm.) R. Ballard; Bidens orendainae ME Jones; Bidens pilosa f. discoidea Sch. Beep.; Bidens pilosa f. undivided Kayama; Bidens pilosa f. undivided Sherff; Bidens pilosa f. odorata (Cav.) Sherff; Bidens pilosa var. bimucronatus (Turcz.) OE Schulz; Bidens pilosa var. calcicola (Greenm.) Sherff; Bidens pilosa var. discoidea (Sch. bip.) JA Schmidt; Bidens pilosa var. dubia OE Schulz; Bidens pilosa var. subbiternata Kuntze; Bidens ponders Link; Bidens rosea var. calcicola Greenm.; Bidens striata Schott ex Sw.;Bidens taquetii H. Lév. &Vaniot; Bidens Tripartite Boxwood; Ceratocephalus pilosus (L.) Rich. ex Cass.; Coreopsis coronata L.; Coreopsis corymbifolia Buch.-Ham. former DC.; Coreopsis leucanthema L.; Kerneria dubia Cass.; Kerneria pilosa (L.) Lowe; Kerneria pilosa var. discoidea (Sch. bip.) Lowe; Kerneria tetragona Moench.
beggar’s tick, beggar’s ticks, black jack, bur, bur marigold, butterfly needles, cobbler’s peg, cobbler’s pegs, cobbler’s-pegs, common beggar-ticks, common blackjack, farmer’s friend, hairy beggarticks, hairy beggar-ticks, needleandthread, pitch forks, pitchforks, shepherd’s needles, Spanish needle, Spanish needles, stick tights, stickybeak, white beggarticks
acabualillo, acahual (1), acahual blanco, aceitilla, aceitilla blanca, aceitillo, acocotli, alfiler, amapola, amor seco, beggars tick, caldillo, carrapicho, chilca, chipaca, clavelito de monte, cruceta, cuambu, erva-picão, hierba del pollo, hierba de la culebra, ko’oko’olau (Hawai’i), masiquía, masoquelite, mozoquelite, mozot, mozote blanco (2), mulito, Picão preto, pirca, Quelite amargo blanco, rocia, rocilla, romerillo, satilla, Spanish needles, te de coral, té de milpa, te de playa, yema de huevo, zeta.
- from the Nahuatl acahualli, from atl, water and cahualli, left or abandoned, that is, what the water leaves behind; because it is a plant that grows in abandoned cultivation plots or as a weed along roadsides and is rarely cultivated. The Nahuatl dictionary notes cahualli as having the following meanings : one who is left behind, such as a widow or widower : a person abandoned by their spouse : a nibbled piece of fruit. The name also refers generically to other plants that spontaneously grow in the milpa (or fields) after the rainy season. This is the nature of many quelites that are not (or not able to be) cultivated.
- from the Nahuatl motzotl, from the verb motzoloa, to hold on tightly (referring to the stick-fast nature of the seeds)
Romerillo is a Common Name of Spanish origin. It can refer to several plants found in Latin America. According to the Merriam-Wbster dictionary it refers to “any of several tropical American plants with an aromatic odor most of which yield native remedies or dyes” and clarifies the definition further with the following sub-categories……..
- a South American herb (Heterothalamus brunioides) of the family Compositae whose flower heads yield a yellow dye
- a Mexican shrubby milkweed (Asclepias linaria) that yields a violent purge
- any of several Mexican plants of the family Compositae (especially Porophyllum scoparium and Chrysactinia mexicana)
Plants called romerillo can also be defined as “having foliage similar to that of Romero (Rosemary – Rosmarinus officinalis). None of the Bidens species have this type of foliage though. The plants mentioned here are considered to be strongly aromatic.
- See Post Damianita : Chrysactinia mexicana
- See Post Porophyllum scoparium
Other names originating in Mesoamerica
- Náhuatl – tzitziquil, chichiquelite (1), tzitziquilistac, iztacmozot
- Chiapas – majitas (Tzeltal), matas, sakil matas, tsijil matas (Tzotzil)
- Estado de Mexico – tzitzi quil, tzitziquilistacayana
- Michoacan – kutsumu, kutsum ‘tsitsiki, kutsumu urapitj (Purepecha)
- Puebla – iztacmozot (Nahua), ñadoni (Otomi)
- Hidalgo – musutl blanco
- Huastec – quelem
- Yucatán – Chichik-kul, k’an-mul, k’an tumbuub, matsab-kitam, ch’ich bu’ul
- San Luis Potosi – k’elem, k’elem huitz (Tenek)
- Further north (Sonora and into SW USA) chichiquelite refers to the huckleberry (a nightshade berry in the Solanum species). In some texts chichiquelite is listed as Bidens odorata.
This species is widespread throughout the warmer regions of the world, but is thought to have originated in tropical America (Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, the Caribbean, French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay). It is particularly common in the eastern and northern parts of Australia. It is widely naturalised throughout Queensland, eastern New South Wales, the Northern Territory and the northern parts of Western Australia. Less common in the ACT, in some parts of Victoria and South Australia, and in south-western Australia.
According to the CABI Compendium (1) “Bidens pilosa is a widespread weed of tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world. This species has high reproductive potential and fast-growing rates, which are traits enabling it to rapidly spread and colonize new areas. A single plant may produce up to 6000 seeds per year and its seeds can easily be dispersed attached to animals, birds, human clothes or by wind and water. Seeds may remain viable for 5-6 years. This species is also adapted to grow in a wide range of habitats and soil types. It benefits from disturbances and quickly invades after fire and soil tillage. It has the potential to grow rapidly forming dense stands that outcompete and eliminate crops and native vegetation. The leaf and the root contain allelopathic substances that suppress the germination and establishment of seedlings of native plant species. The dense thickets can also affect roads, rails and recreation areas and are nuisance to travellers and tourists. Its burs irritate people and livestock and the roots, leaves, and flowers are strongly phytotoxic and poisonous. Currently it is listed as an agricultural and environmental weed in more than 40 countries.“
- Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. CABI (legally CAB International, formerly Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux) is an international not-for-profit intergovernmental development and information organisation focusing primarily on agricultural and environmental issues in the developing world, and the creation, curation, and dissemination of scientific knowledge. Their work is delivered through teams of CABI scientists and key partners working in over 40 countries across the world. CABI states its mission as “improving people’s lives worldwide by solving problems in agriculture and the environment”. These problems include loss of crops caused by pests and diseases, invasive weeds and pests that damage farm production and biodiversity, and lack of global access to scientific research.
This native plant originating from Mexico and Guatemala is an annual herb, one of the most common and abundant weed species (of crop fields) in the highlands and midlands of Mexico. Its growth has been reported in crops of alfalfa, cotton, rice, oats, peanuts, pumpkin, cane, barley, chili, strawberry, beans, broad bean, tomato, corn, mango, nopal, potato, sorghum, tomato and grape. The plants habitat is mainly in cultivated fields, roadsides, disturbed places. It is found naturally on slopes and around rivers in areas or regions of pine-oak forest, cloud forest, deciduous forest and grasslands. It grows in western Mexico mainly between 1,000 and 2,200 meters above sea level; in the Valley of Mexico from 2,250 to 2,900 meters above sea level.
This plant grows in a wide variety of habitats and is well known as a weed of gardens, parks, crops, pastures, roadsides, disturbed sites and waste areas. It also invades waterways, rainforest margins, open woodlands and coastal sites (particularly in warmer regions). For this reason it is also regarded as an environmental weed in New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia and the Australian Capital Territory.
In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Bidens refers to several species of plants most often known as guizhencao (1). It is said that the name refers to the characteristically barbed fruits (seeds) and echoes the European common name of Beggars ticks (2). The English common name for the herb, “railway beggar’s tick,” came about because the barbs stick to one like a tick, and it was usually seen on the clothing of those who wander through along roads and railways (such as hobos). Bidens is a popular herb in China, mainly used as a folk medicine, meaning that it is collected and used by laypersons to treat common ailments: dysentery, skin diseases, poisonous bites. It is also one of the mainstream herbs of the Chinese tradition, with two types included in the authoritative compendium of the 16th century, the Bencao Gangmu. Western students of Chinese medicine are not introduced to this herb because it is not mentioned in the traditional formulations presented in modern textbooks.
- gui = demon or ghost, zhen = spike, needle, cao = weed, plant
- or Railway beggars ticks
In Chinese Medicinal Herbs of Hong Kong (Li Ning-hon etal 1986), the indications for Bidens pilosa (sanye guizhencao – three-leaf bidens – the only species listed) are:
- influenza, colds, fever, sore throat;
- acute appendicitis;
- acute infectious hepatitis;
- gastroenteritis, dyspepsia;
- rheumatic arthralgia;
- malaria; and
- hemorrhoids, pruritis.
Bidens pilosa is included among the clear heat and toxin herbs. It is said that the nature of the herb is sweet and bland, with a neutral property, though other sources (Li Ning-hon etal 1986) list it as bitter. Its actions are to expel pathogenic factors from the surface of the body, clear up heat, remove toxin, and eliminate stagnancy. The applications listed include influenza, swollen and sore throat, enteritis, dysentery, jaundice, intestinal carbuncle, epilepsy in children, malnutrition in infants, and hemorrhoids.
In Durango, the decoction of its leaves and stems is used to relieve kidney and bladder congestion, lower fever and stomach inflammation, and treat lung problems. In Veracruz, an infusion is taken to raise platelets when suffering from dengue. In the central states of the country and in Sonora, the use of mozote is frequently indicated to resolve disorders of the digestive system, mainly diarrhoea , as well as vomiting, stomach pain , ulcers, stomach inflammation and as an antiemetic.
Properties/Actions Documented by Research
anticandidal, anti-inflammatory (Chiang etal 2005), antiulcerous (Alvarez etal 1999), antibacterial (van Puyvelde etal 1994), anticoagulant, antifungal, antihepatotoxic (Chiang etal 2004), antileukemic (Chang etal 2001), antimalarial (Tobinaga etal 2009), antioxidant (Wu etalo 2013), antitumor (Wu etal 2013), antivenin, antiviral, cardiotonic, COX-inhibitor (Yoshgida etal 2006), Gastroprotective (Horiuchi etal 2010), hepatoprotective (Chin etal 1996), hepatotonic (Kviecinski etal 2011), hypoglycaemic (Hsu etal 2009), hypotensive (Dimon etal 2002), immunomodulator (Abajo etal 2004), uterine stimulant (Nikolajsen etal 2011),
Documented traditional uses:
abortive, antidiabetic, antihemorrhagic, antiparasitic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cough suppressant, astringent, bitter, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, emmenagogue, febrifuge, mucous membrane tonic (1), stimulant, vermifuge, vulnerary
- Well known Southwestern herbalist, Michael Moore, says that Bidens has: “the ability to tighten, shrink and tonify the structural cells of the mucus membranes thereby preventing congestion and edema, while simultaneously increasing circulation, metabolism, and healing energy of the functional cells of those tissues.”. This is particularly useful in cases of persistent urinary tract infections and urogenital inflammation.
- if you need any explanation of some of the terms listed above see Post Glossary of Terms used in Herbal Medicine
Aceitilla may potentiate (increase the power and/or the effect of) the effects of antidiabetic, blood thinning medications (including aspirin) and drugs taken to reduce high blood pressure (hypertension)
Avoid during pregnancy due to its uterine stimulant action. Any uterine stimulant herb has the potential to produce spontaneous abortion.
The plant has been reported to produce phototoxicity in susceptible individuals. Phototoxicity (photoirritation) is defined as a toxic response that is elicited after the initial exposure of skin to certain chemicals and subsequent exposure to light. In phototoxicity, people have pain and develop redness, inflammation, and sometimes brown or blue-grey discoloration in areas of skin that have been exposed to sunlight for a brief period.
For the treatment of bilis (1) it is accompanied by other plants, such as elder (Sambucus mexicana), sweet grass (Phyla scaberrima), mano de gato (cat’s hand – Geranium seemannii), hierba del golpe (Oenothera rosea), tomate (Physalis aequata), lima chichona (Citrus limetta), malva chiquita (Malva multifida), hierba de la garapata (tick grass), hierba mora (Anoda cristata – alaches. See Post Quelite : Alache : Anoda cristata), quelite bueno (Amaranthus hybridus) tomate de ratón (Solanum douglasii), espinoso (Sechium edule – chayote), estafiate (Artemisia ludoviciana), and is taken as a warm infusion or as a bath (for topical applications).
- literally “bile” – see Post Glossary of Terms used in Herbal Medicine. for further information on this anger related condition
This herb is used (under the name mozote) by Mixes (1), Totonacas (2) and Zapotecos (3) for the treatment (para curar) of susto (4). Susto is another condition (like bilis) that has no equivalent in modern allopathic medicinal practices. Susto is caused essentially by fear or shock and results in the spirit being separated from the body which van further result in both mental and physical maladies. The treatment for susto can be applied to a child frightened by a dog or to a soldier suffering post-traumatic stress disorder and has a particular relevance in todays society where any mental problem is usually treated with drugs.
- The Mixe are an indigenous people of Mexico inhabiting the eastern highlands of the state of Oaxaca. They speak the Mixe languages, which are classified in the Mixe–Zoque family, and are more culturally conservative than other indigenous groups of the region, maintaining their language to this day. The Mixe name for themselves is ayuujkjä’äy meaning “people who speak the mountain language” and the word “Mixe” itself is probably derived from the Nahuatl word for cloud: mīxtli.
- The Totonac are an indigenous people of Mexico who reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo. Until the mid-19th century they were the world’s main producers of vanilla
- The Zapotecs are an indigenous people of Mexico. The population is concentrated in the southern state of Oaxaca, but Zapotec communities also exist in neighbouring states. In pre-Columbian times, the Zapotec civilization was one of the most highly developed cultures of Mesoamerica. Benito Juarez (the first president of Mexico of indigenous origin) was born in Oaxaca to Zapotec parents.
- See Posts What is Curanderismo? and Glossary of Terms used in Herbal Medicine. for more information on this condition.
All parts of B. pilosa plant, the whole plant, the aerial parts (leaves, flowers, seeds, and stems), and/or the roots, fresh or dried, are used as ingredients in folk medicines. It is frequently prepared as a dry powder, decoction, maceration or tincture (Redl etal 1994). Generally, this plant is applied as dry powder or tincture when used externally, and as a powder, maceration, or decoction when used as an internal remedy (Rybalchenko etal 2010).
Bathe with the infusion, right after preparation (whilst it’s still warm), 2 x a day
- 3 to 7 years – Take – 35 mL of the infusion, right after preparation, 3 to 4 times a day.
- 7 to 12 years – Take 75 mL of the infusion, right after preparation, 3 to 4 times a day
- drink the infusion as needed
- drink no more than 1-3 cups of the decoction daily
- Two to three ml of a 4:1 tincture twice daily (40-80ml per week of a 1:2 liquid extract)
- 2-3 g of powdered herb in tablets, capsules, or stirred into water (or juice) twice daily can be substituted
Traditional medicinal use of B.pilosa (as recorded by Bartolome etal 2013)
This is a wild plant of the milpa. It is not cultivated commercially and is generally only available during the rainy season between August and September.
Young leaves sometimes eaten raw or steamed, but the taste can be a bit strong. Apparently the best tasting plants grow in (at least part) shade and have plenty of water.
The stems and tender leaves of mozote blanco (Bidens pilosa) are eaten as quelites, they are generally steamed or sautéed in oil. In the Sierra Norte de Puebla, in Tuxtla and Zapotitlán, mozote in broth is prepared, a simple soup of mozotes cooked in water with limestone salt (1). It is served hot and accompanied with corn tortillas. The Tarahumara consume the tender white mozote, because (according to them) it is the most flavourful of them.
- con sal caliza – tequesquite? or just a pinch of cal used to nixtamalize corn? See Post Tequesquite
In Zimbabwe the leaves are boiled with peanut butter and eaten.
The seeds are used in making an Igorot (1) rice wine called “sinitsit” in the Philippines.
- The indigenous peoples of the Cordillera Mountain Range of northern Luzon, Philippines are often referred to as the Igorot people, or more recently, as the Cordilleran peoples
It has been noted by some that this plant must be cooked (if you intend to eat it) due to the high saponin content – but it has also been noted that the young leaves can be eaten as a salad. It would be best to cook older leaves and leaves taken from the plant after it has flowered. The leaves can be successfully dried and can be saved for eating later (after cooking of course).
It has been said that dried leaves of the B. Alba make a good tobacco substitute.
Bidens tripartita (1) a hyponym (2) of the Bidens species (3) is a member of this family with a well-studied and documented medicinal history. Its common name, Burr marigold, refers to the pronged seeds typical of these plants. This plant was written of by Culpeper (4) in the 1600’s at around the same time it was being listed in the Chinese Bencao Gangmu (1596 A.D.) as a treatment for chronic diarrhoea. Maude Grieve (5) wrote of this herb (1931) noting it being respected for its “astringent and diuretic properties” and that it is “an excellent styptic remedy for ruptured blood vessels and bleeding of every description”. Michael Moore (6) notes the herbs effectiveness as mucous membrane tonic and Stephen Buhner praises the antibacterial properties of the plant deeming it to be a “great systemic antibacterial herb and a mucous membrane tonic” that is “astringent, powerfully anti-inflammatorty and strongly antibacterial” being specific for “a number of troublesome diseases caused by resistant pathogens”
- tripartita = divided into three segments
- a word of more specific meaning than a general or superordinate term applicable to it. For example, spoon is a hyponym of cutlery. Botanical terminology can be painful and, like much science spek, confusing and unhelpful unless you have a very good dictionary. At this point I give thanks for the internet in that it is a veritable Library of Alexandria.
- Whose common names include burr marigold, three-lobe beggartick, leafy-bracted beggarticks, trifid bur-marigold
- Nicholas Culpeper (18 October 1616 – 10 January 1654) was an English botanist, herbalist, physician and astrologer. His book The English Physician (1652, later Complete Herbal, 1653 ff.) is a source of pharmaceutical and herbal lore of the time, and Astrological Judgement of Diseases from the Decumbiture of the Sick (1655) one of the most detailed works on medical astrology in Early Modern Europe. Culpeper catalogued hundreds of outdoor medicinal herbs.
- Sophie Emma Magdalene Grieve (née Law; 4 May 1858 – 21 December 1941) also known as Maud, Margaret, Maude or Mrs. Grieve, was the principal and founder of The Whins Medicinal and Commercial Herb School and Farm at Chalfont St. Peter in Buckinghamshire, England. Grieve was a Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society, President of the British Guild of Herb Growers, and Fellow of the British Science Guild. She is best known for her 1931 book, A Modern Herbal.
- Michael Moore (January 9, 1941 – February 20, 2009) was a medicinal herbalist, author of several reference works on botanical medicine, and founder of the Southwest School of Botanical Medicine. Moore has influenced, impacted, taught, and reached, in one way or another, more practicing herbalists than any other living herbalist in the United States. His books put the previously unknown materia medica of the southwest (of the U.S. of A) into the mainstream.
B.tripartita is listed as having the following medicinal actions : antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-dysenteric, antihaemmorhagic, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiseptic, astringent, bitter, blood tonic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, galactagogue, hepatoprotective, hypoglycaemic (goes back to it being anti-diabetic), hypotensive, immunomodulator, mucous membrane tonic, neuroprotective, (pungent) aromatic, renoprotective, styptic, (mild) sudorific and vulnerary (1) and is indicated for the following conditions : acne, allergic rhinitis, alopecia, asthma, babesia infections, colds and flu (with inflamed mucous membranes), Crohn’s disease, diarrhoea, dysentery, eczema, fever, gastrointestinal ulcers, gout, haematuria, haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, hepatic steatosis, hypertension, (systemic) infections, inflammatory liver conditions, leishmania infections (2), malaria, metrorrhagia, neurogenerative diseases, oedema, psoriasis (use internally and topically), renal disease, respiratory infectionas and inflammation, sore throat, systemic staphylococcus infections, ulcerative colitis, urinary tract infections and vaginitis.
- See Post Glossary of Terms used in Herbal Medicine. for any clarification you need
- Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is found in parts of the tropics, subtropics, and southern Europe. It is classified as a neglected tropical disease (NTD). Leishmaniasis is caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are spread by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis in people. The most common forms are cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, and visceral leishmaniasis, which affects several internal organs (usually spleen, liver, and bone marrow). Some of the Porophyllum species of herb (aaaahhh, Papalo, my favourite child….sssshhh, don’t tell the others…I love them too) anyway…various of the Porophyllum species are also utilised for this type of infection as well. Has anyone tried combining them yet?? See Posts Quillquina : Porophyllum ruderale and Porophyllums : Medicinal Utility : A Recap
40 – 80ml per week of a 1:2 liquid extract
Do not use if you are taking diabetic medications. May cause hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar levels).
The most common early warning signs of hypoglycaemia are:
- feeling shaky
- fast heart beat
- sudden hunger
Don’t ignore hypoglycaemia symptoms. Treat symptoms immediately so your blood glucose level does not continue to drop.
Symptoms of severe hypoglycaemia
Severe hypoglycaemia occurs when the brain is not getting enough glucose to function properly. Symptoms of severe hypoglycaemia include:
- unable to think clearly
- unable to follow instructions
- slurred speech
- appearing drunk
- fitting (having a seizure)
- becoming unconscious.
Treatment for mild hypoglycaemia
In cases of mild hypoglycaemia the person can treat themselves (young children or people being cared for by others may need assistance).
If the person’s blood glucose level is 4.0 mmol/L or less and they are conscious and able to swallow, the following steps apply.
Take 15–20 grams of glucose such as:
6 or 7 regular size jelly beans, or
- 100–120 ml (½ standard cup) Lucozade energy drink (not Sport), or
- 150 – 200 ml soft drink or fruit juice (1 standard cup), or
- 15 grams of glucose gel, or
- 3 teaspoons of sugar or honey.
Recheck your blood glucose in 15 minutes.
Treatment for severe (or unconscious) hypoglycaemia
In cases of severe hypoglycaemia the person cannot treat themselves, and needs the help of someone else. Call triple zero (000) for an ambulance immediately.
If the person can’t swallow or follow instructions do not give them any treatment by mouth.
If you are trained in how to prepare and inject glucagon (or how to use it yourself) and feel comfortable injecting it, then this can be administered.
Ambulance paramedics have the resources to manage severe hypoglycaemia.
This is only basic information. Diabetes that requires the use of injectable insulin is a serious medical condition that cannot effectively be controlled by herbs alone. Do not attempt to do so. If you are diabetic then you no doubt have been educated on your condition and know how to manage it. If you do not then seek expert advice and learn how to. You may be pre-diabetic or suffering from Metabolic Syndrome both of which are generally caused by poor diet, lack of physical fitness/exercise, drug use (alcohol, tobacco etal) and obesity. These ARE conditions that can be managed with herbs and diet. These conditions can be reversed at this stage. Once you’re injecting insulin you are in a different (sinking) boat.
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- Alvarez, A., et al. “Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of an ethanolic extract of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Schult. Bip.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(3): 333–40.
- Bartolome AP, Villaseñor IM, Yang WC. Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae): Botanical Properties, Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:340215. doi: 10.1155/2013/340215. Epub 2013 Jul 1. PMID: 23935661; PMCID: PMC3712223.
- Chang, J. S., et al. “Antileukemic activity of Bidens pilosa L. var. minor (Blume) Sherff and Houttuynia cordata Thunb.” Am. J. Chin. Med. 2001; 29(2): 303-12.
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- Deodata V. Mtenga, Asha S. Ripanda; (2022) A review on the potential of underutilized Blackjack (Biden Pilosa) naturally occurring in sub-Saharan Africa : Heliyon, Volume 8, Issue 6, 2022, e09586, ISSN 2405-8440, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09586.
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- Li Ning-hon, et al., Chinese Medicinal Herbs of Hong Kong (5 vol.), 1986 Chinese Medical Research Institute, Hong Kong.
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- Taylor, Leslie. (2005) The healing power of rainforest herbs “A guide to understanding and using herbal medicinals” ISBN 100757001440
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