- Homotypic synonyms (2): Cacalia ruderalis (Jacq.) Sw.; Kleinia ruderalis Jacq.; Porophyllum ruderale subsp. ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.;
- Heterotypic synonyms (3): Cacalia glandulosa Salisb.; Kleinia glandulosa Moc. & Sessé; Kleinia glandulosa Sessé & Moc.; Kleinia porophyllum (L.) Willd.; Porophyllum ellipticum (L.) Cass.; Porophyllum latifolium Benth.; Porophyllum macrocephalum DC.; Porophyllum macrolepidium Malme; Porophyllum porophyllum (L.) Kuntze;
- a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language, for example shut is a synonym of close. In botanical nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies.
- In botanical nomenclature a homotypic synonym (nomenclatural synonym) is a synonym that comes into being through a nomenclatural act. When a taxon gets a new name, without being included in another taxon (of the same rank). The old name becomes a homotypic synonym of the new name.
- In botanical nomenclature a heterotypic synonym (or taxonomic synonym) is a synonym that comes into being when a taxon is reduced in status (“reduced to synonymy”) and becomes part of a different taxon.
One of the common names for poreleafs (1) is Bolivian or Peruvian coriander. To the Quechua speaking peoples of Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia it might be called killi or quillquina (2). The plant is both used culinarily and medicinally in these areas and I have Posted on this previously (3) so I wont go over this ground again.
- Usually P.ruderale is being referred to
- Killkiña, (Bolivia) Quilquiña / Quillquiña / Quirquiña (del quechua killkiña).
- See Posts : Quillquina : Porophyllum ruderale; Porophyllums : Medicinal Utility : A Recap; Pápaloquelite : Porophyllum macrocephalum
Also called : Hierba Gallinazo, Hierba del Gallinazo, Aicoro, ahuicoro, kirkiña, rupay wachi, ruda, hierba del Shingo
I would like to introduce the work of Rainer W. Bussmann who has written extensively on the herbs of Peru and the poreleaf features in many of his works. Rainer is a German botanist and vegetation ecologist, specializing in ethnobotany and ethnobiology, wild food plants, wild crop relatives, climate change, gastronomic botany and preservation of traditional knowledge in the Andes, the Caucasus and the Himalayas. From 2003 to 2006 he joined the University of Hawaii (Manoa) as Scientific Director of the Harold L. Lyon Arboretum, and as Associate Professor of Botany, where he focussed his research on the ecology of cloud forests and medicinal plants in northern Peru, under the Program of International Health Research Training and Health of Minorities (MHIRT) of the National Institute of Health. He is currently the Professor of Ethnobotany and Head, Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany at Ilia State University in Tbilisi, Georgia
Bussmann goes into a good amount of detail regarding the use of this plant. He notes that it is the aerial parts of the fresh plant that is primarily used (although the dried herb is also sometimes used). It is used either as a poultice or with aguardiente and can be used both internally and topically. It makes several appearances in treatments performed by curanderos for conditions that have no real correspondences in modern allopathic medicine. Conditions such as mal aire, susto (or its relative espanto) or daño are illnesses that initially affect the spirit of a person and can consequently leave that person vulnerable to physical (or deeper mental) illness. These conditions are generally treated first with a limpia (1) which often involves a barrida, or “sweeping”, where bunches of aromatic herbs are brushed over the body to aid in the removal of negative energies. This cleansing can also be done for your home through the use of the smoke of sacred herbs to “smudge” the living areas which purifies and blesses them.
Bussman notes the combinations of plants used by Peruvian curanderos for various ailments. The connection underlying them all is the quelite quillquiña (Poropyllum ruderale).
Bad Air – Mal Aire
- Brugmansia sanguinea (Ruiz & Pav.) D. Don., Brugmansia candida Pers., Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerh., Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Gaultheria reticulata Kunth
Susto is a condition caused by fear or fright. An event (such as a dog attack on a child) is said to cause the spirit to be separated from the body. If left untreated susto can escalate into daño (loosely translated as damage/harm/injury/evil although it can also involve being attacked by “sorcery”)
- Plantago linearis Kunth, Plantago major L., Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Okens, Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerh., Brugmansia sanguinea (Ruiz & Pav.) D. Don, Spartium junceum L., Trixis cacalioides (Kunth) D. Don
- Salvia discolor Kunth, Ambrosia peruviana Willd., Miconia salicifolia (Bonpl. ex Naudin) Naudin, Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Okens, Siparuna muricata (Ruiz & Pav.) A. DC., Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Ruta graveolens L
- Salvia discolor Kunth, Achyrocline alata (Kunth) DC., Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken
- Brugmansia candida Pers., Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerh., Brugmansia sanguinea (Ruiz & Pav.) D. Don, Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Zea mays L., Gaultheria reticulata Kunth
- Solanum americanum Mill., Monactis flaverioides Kunth, Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia rosmarinifolia G. Don, Salvia tubiflora Ruiz & Pav., Couepia sp., Achyrocline alata (Kunth) DC., Aiouea dubia (Kunth) Mez., Nectandra reticulata (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez., Strychnos sp., Tagetes erecta L., Ruta graveolens L
WARNING : Now. Before we progress any further it must be noted that several of the combinations/formulas noted for both susto and daño contain various of the Brugmansia species of plant. Also called Angels Trumpet (or in México Floripondio) these plants are relatives (more or less) of the datura species (Stramonium), it must be stated that these are strong shamanic plants and that all parts of Brugmansia are potentially poisonous, with the seeds and leaves being especially dangerous. Brugmansia are rich in scopolamine (hyoscine), hyoscyamine, and several other tropane alkaloids which can lead to anticholinergic toxidrome and delirium. Effects of ingestion can include paralysis of smooth muscles, confusion, tachycardia, dry mouth, constipation, tremors, migraine headaches, poor coordination, delusions, visual and auditory hallucinations, mydriasis, rapid onset cycloplegia, and death. The hallucinations caused by these plants are more unpleasant than they are pleasurable. These hallucinations are often characterized by complete loss of awareness that one is hallucinating, disconnection from reality (psychosis), and amnesia of the episode. This action is known as being deliriant (i.e. causes delirium) . INTERNAL USE OF THIS PLANT IS NOT RECOMMENDED.
- Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken, Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerh., Brugmansia sanguinea (Ruiz & Pav.) D. Don, Spartium junceum L., Trixis cacalioides (Kunth) D. Don
- Salvia discolor Kunth, Ambrosia peruviana Willd., Miconia salicifolia (Bonpl. ex Naudin) Naudin, Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken, Siparuna muricata (Ruiz & Pav.) A. DC., Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Trixis cacalioides (Kunth) D. Don, Ruta graveolens L
- Ocimum basilicum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Schinus molle L., Spartium junceum L., Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Ruta graveolens L., Ambrosia peruviana Willd.
- Brugmansia sanguinea (Ruiz & Pav.) D. Don., Brugmansia candida Pers., Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerh., Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Zea mays L., Gaultheria reticulata Kunth
Bussman goes on to give further instruction for the treatment of daño/sorcery and fright/susto.
A topical application is made using the dired, whole plants of (5g of each herb) : Llantén, Ajosquiro, Hierba Gallinazo, Hierba del Romero, Flor del Muerto, Eucalyptus, Floripondio Flowers, Retama and Añasquero Chico infused in 3 litres of water. Bathe with this 2 times a month on a Tuesday and Friday only. Rub body with herbs. Rinse with the water. Do not dry with a towel. Air dry
I’m assuming this is used either to generate good luck or protect you from bad luck. I have not had much to do with luck (as a condition) in my study of curanderismo.
Ocimum basilicum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Schinus molle L., Spartium junceum L., Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Ruta graveolens L., Ambrosia peruviana Willd.,
With the following conditions it is likely that these combinations are taken internally as an infusion
Blood Pressure (Low)
- Ocimum basilicum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Schinus molle L., Spartium junceum L., Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Ruta graveolens L. Ambrosia peruviana Willd.
- Ocimum basilicum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Schinus molle L., Spartium junceum L., Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Ruta graveolens L., Ambrosia peruviana Willd.,
This next treatment is likely a poultice used on infected skin conditions (1). P.ruderale has a demonstrated ability to inhibit various pathogenic bacteria (including Staphylococcus aureus)
- See Post The Pore Leaf in Brazil for more information on the use of porophyllums in herbal poultices (and for more information on herbal poultices in general)
- Salvia discolor Kunth, Achyrocline alata (Kunth) DC, Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken
To clean the energy of your home an incense is made with the (whole dried herbs) Llatama, Ajosquiro and Añasquero Chico, 5g of each herb, smudge your home with this mixture 2 times a month.
Monigatti (2011) notes of P.ruderale regarding the medicinal use of plants in Uchumarca and Pusac / San Vicente de Paúl, La Libertad (Peru). Here the plant is known as Ruda or Hierba del Shingo and it is used topically in limpias. The notation in the book is quite short though
Medicinal use : Susto: limpia (also with Camotillo, Molle, Añashquero, Palo Santo, Ruda, Romero, and floral perfume, camphor, sugar cane spirit) or rubbing
Some of the herbs listed in the remedies above are listed by their common names. Llantén, Ajosquiro, Hierba Gallinazo, Hierba del Romero, Flor del Muerto, Eucalyptus, Floripondio Flowers, Retama and Añasquero Chico amongst them. Lets have a look at these plants.
Hierba de Gallinazo : Porophyllum ruderale
Hierba del Romero : Rosmarinus officinalis
Flor de Muerto : Tagetes erecta
Eucalyptus : a large tree native to Australia
Floripondio : Brugmansia species – Pictures supplied earlier in the Post
Retama : Spartium junceum
Añasquero Chico : Trixis cacalioides
Now. Bussmann and crew have been studying these plants for at least a dozen years (there are papers in the references below being published between 2006 to 2018) and it is apparent that as the studies continued the knowledge of the plants expanded and was refined. I bring to the fore one (or is it two?) plants that comes up in the same formula. The two names in question are Ajos Giros (1) and ajosquiro (2)
- Also called : ajos giro, ajos quiro and ajo sacha
- Also written as ajos chiro (Espanol)
Ajosquiro : Gallizia corazema (below)
Ajos Giro : Cordia alliodora (below)
This particular example only goes further in demonstrating that you must be 100% sure of the plant you are dealing with. Common names are problematic (and potentially deadly if misidentification occurs)(1) and is the reason I prefer to rely on the Latin naming system for plants.
- See Post A Note on Deer Weed : The Danger of Common Names for further elaboration on this subject
One herb that pops up in the formulas is Llatama. In one of his earlier publications (1) Bussmann offers some identifications for this plant.
- Bussmann, Rainer & Sharon, Douglas. (2006). Traditional Medicinal Plant Use in Northern Peru: Tracking Two Thousand Years of Healing Culture. Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine. 2. 47. 10.1186/1746-4269-2-47.
There are several varieties of Llatama noted…….
Llatama (Yatama) : Salvia discolor
Llatama Blanca : Verbena littoralis
Llatama roja : Miconia salicifolia
Llatama Negra Malera (1), Llatama Roja Malera : Ambrosia peruviana
- one definition I could find for malera is “witch that sends diseases and curses”. This might bear relevance to the fact the plant is used to cleanse your home (or perhaps it has to do with the fact that witches use this plant for magical purposes?), another translation was “undergrowth”
One plant that is not readily identified is Llantén. I expect this may be because it is not a native plant (although Bussmann does mention various of the Plantago species in later publications) and this herb is by and large considered to be an introduced weed in most places it exists. This plant has along history of medicinal use – 4000 years or more (Najafian etal 2018) and is still a valuable medicine in the herbalists repertoire.
The common name for this plant is plantain (absolutely no relative to the platano)(1) and one of its common names is “white mans foot” (or “footprint/footsteps”) which was said to be named by native Americans who noted that wherever the white man went this plant sprang up. Llantén could also be considered a quelite per the standard definition (2) even though it is an introduced plant.
- the platano (or plantain) is a variety of banana in the Musa species. It is what is considered to be a “cooking” banana.
- See Post : Quelites : Quilitl
- Bussmann RW, Glenn A. Mending the heart. Plants used in Peruvian ethnomedicine for heart disease, blood pressure irregularities and cholesterol control. Arnaldoa. 2011;18(2):167–78.
- Bussmann, R. W., & Sharon, D. (2006). Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-2-44
- Bussmann RW, Sharon D. Traditional plant use in northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006b;2:47.
- Bussmann RW, Sharon D. Plants of longevity – the medicinal flora of Vilcabamba. Plantas de longevidad – La flora medicinal de Vilcabamba. Honolulu: Arogya; 2007a. ISBN 978-0-9789962-2-2.
- Bussmann RW, Sharon D. Plants of the four winds – the magic and medicinal flora of Peru. Plantas de los cuatro vientos – La flora mágica y medicinal del Perú. Honolulu: Arogya; 2007b. ISBN 978-0-9789962-3-9.
- Bussmann, R. W., & Sharon, D. (2018). Medicinal plants of the Andes and the Amazon – The magic and medicinal flora of Northern Peru. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 15, 1–295. Retrieved from https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/1283
- Bussmann RW, Sharon D. Plantas medicinales de los Andes y la Amazonía – La flora mágica y medicinal del Norte de Peru. St. Louis: William L. Brown Center, MBG; 2015b. ISBN 978-0-9960231-3-9.
- Bussmann RW, Sharon D, Vandebroek I, Jones A, Revene Z. Health for sale: the medicinal plant markets in Trujillo and Chiclayo, northern Peru. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007;3:37.
- Bussmann RW, Sharon D, Perez F, Díaz D, Ford T, Rasheed T, Silva R. Antibacterial activity of northern-Peruvian medicinal plants – a low cost laboratory approach to assess biological activity. Arnaldoa. 2008;15(1):127–48.
- Bussmann RW, Sharon D, Diaz D, Cardenas R, Chait G, Castro M, Regalado S, Del Toro CR, Malca G G, Perez A F, Glenn A. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant species in northern Peru. Arnaldoa. 2009a;16(1):93–103.
- Bussmann RW, Sharon D, Garcia M. From Chamomile to Aspirin? Medicinal plant use among clients at Laboratorios Beal in Trujillo, Peru. Ethnobot Res Appl. 2009b;7:399–407.
- Bussmann RW, Glenn A, Sharon D. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants of northern Peru – can traditional applications provide leads for modern science? Indian J Tradit Med. 2010a;9(4):742–53.
- Bussmann, R.W., Glenn, A., & Sharon, D. (2010). Healing the body and soul: Traditional remedies for “magical” ailments, nervous system and psychosomatic disorders in Northern Peru. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 4, 580-629.
- Rainer W Bussmann; Ashley Glenn; Karen Meyer; Alyse Kuhlman; Andrew Townesmith (2010). Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru. , 6(1), 10–0. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-6-10
- Bussmann RW, Glenn A, Sharon D, Chait G, Díaz D, Pourmand K, Jonat B, Somogy S, Guardado G, Aguirre C, Meyer K, Rothrock A, Townesmith A. Antibacterial activity of northern Peruvian medicinal plants. Ethnobot Res Appl. 2011a;9:67–96.
- Bussmann RW, Malca G, Glenn A, Sharon D, Nilsen B, Parris B, Dubose D, Ruiz D, Saleda J, Martinez M, Carillo L, Walker K, Kuhlman A, Townesmith A. Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;137(1):121-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.071. Epub 2011 May 6. PMID: 21575699; PMCID: PMC3159793.
- Bussmann RW, Paniagua Zambrana NY, Moya Huanca LA, Hart RE. Changing markets – medicinal plants in the markets of La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;193:76–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.074.
- Bussmann RW, Paniagua-Zambrana NY, Romero C, Hart RE. Astonishing diversity – the medicinal plant markets of Bogotá, Colombia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2018;14(1):43. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0241-8.
- Bussmann RW. The globalization of traditional medicine in northern peru: from shamanism to molecules.(2013) Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:291903. doi: 10.1155/2013/291903. Epub 2013 Dec 28. PMID: 24454490; PMCID: PMC3888705.
- Bussmann RW, Malca-García G, Glenn A, et al. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010 Oct;132(1):101-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.048. PMID: 20678568; PMCID: PMC2956840.
- Bussmann, Rainer & Sharon, Douglas & Ly, Jennifer. (2008). From Garden to Market? The cultivation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Cajamarca, Peru and implications for habitat conservation. Ethnobotany Research and Applications. 6. 10.17348/era.6.0.351-361.
- Dean, Bartholomew. (1998). REVIEW: Sorcery and Shamanism: Curanderos and Clients In Northern Peru. American Ethnologist. 25. 61 – 62. 10.1525/ae.19184.108.40.206.
- Dillon, M. O. & B. L. Turner. 1982. Chromosome numbers of Peruvian Compositae. Rhodora 84
- Najafian Y, Hamedi SS, Farshchi MK, Feyzabadi Z. Plantago major in Traditional Persian Medicine and modern phytotherapy: a narrative review. Electron Physician. 2018 Feb 25;10(2):6390-6399. doi: 10.19082/6390. PMID: 29629064; PMCID: PMC5878035.
- Paúl Gonzáles, Asunción Cano, Tiina Särkinen, Zoë Goodwin, Niels Valencia, Inés Sachahuamán y José Luis Marcelo-Peña (2020) Biodiversidad para las comunidades locales “Las plantas comunes del bosque seco del Marañón” ISBN: 978-612-00-5546-5
- MARQUES, Érica A.; OLIVEIRA, J. A. de; COELHO, A. D.; SALIMENA, J. P.; GAVILANES, M. L. Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. a review of the last 39 years. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 9, n. 7, p. e944975215, 2020. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v9i7.5215. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/5215. Acesso em: 4 aug. 2022.
- Martina Monigatti (2011) Ethnobotany in the Northern Peruvian Andes “Local Knowledge on Medicinal Plant Use” Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich
- Ravindran, P. N. (2017). The encyclopedia of herbs and spices : CAB International Publishing, Boston Massachusetts
- Ruiz, H., Pavón, J., Drawings of the Royal Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru (1777-1816) Draw. Roy. Bot. Exped. Viceroy. Peru